(verb, preposition)


1. Expressing direction.

2. (now obsolete or dialectal) From (of distance, direction), "off". [from the 9th c.]

3. (obsolete except in phrases) Since, from (a given time, earlier state etc.). [from the 9th c.]

4. From, away from (a position, number, distance etc.). [from the 10th c.]

5. (Canada, US, Scotland, Ireland) Before (the hour); to. [from the 19th c.]

6. Expressing separation.

7. Indicating removal, absence or separation, with the action indicated by a transitive verb and the quality or substance by a grammatical object. [from the 10th c.]

8. Indicating removal, absence or separation, with resulting state indicated by an adjective. [from the 10th c.]

9. (obsolete) Indicating removal, absence or separation, construed with an intransitive verb. [14th-19th c.]

10. Expressing origin.

11. Indicating an ancestral source or origin of descent. [from the 9th c.]

12. Indicating a (non-physical) source of action or emotion; introducing a cause, instigation; from, out of, as an expression of. [from the 9th c.]

13. Following an intransitive verb: indicating the source or cause of the verb. [from the 10th c.]

14. Following an adjective. [from the 13th c.]

15. Expressing agency.

16. Following a passive verb to indicate the agent (for most verbs, now usually expressed with by). [from the 9th c.]

17. Used to introduce the "subjective genitive"; following a noun to form the head of a postmodifying noun phrase. [from the 13th c.]

18. Following an adjective, used to indicate the agent of something described by the adjective. [from the 16th c.]

19. Expressing composition, substance.

20. After a verb expressing construction, making etc., used to indicate the material or substance used. [from the 9th c.]

21. Directly following a noun, used to indicate the material from which it is made. [from the 10th c.]

22. Indicating the composition of a given collective or quantitative noun. [from the 12th c.]

23. Used to link a given class of things with a specific example of that class. [from the 12th c.]

24. Linking two nouns in near-apposition, with the first qualifying the second; "which is also". [from the 14th c.]

25. Introducing subject matter.

26. Linking an intransitive verb, or a transitive verb and its subject (especially verbs to do with thinking, feeling, expressing etc.), with its subject-matter: concerning, with regard to. [from the 10th c.]

27. Following a noun (now chiefly nouns of knowledge, communication etc.), to introduce its subject matter; about, concerning. [from the 12th c.]

28. Following an adjective, to introduce its subject matter. [from the 15th c.]

29. Having partitive effect.

30. Following a number or other quantitive word: introducing the whole for which is indicated only the specified part or segment; "from among". [from the 9th c.]

31. Following a noun indicating a given part. [from the 9th c.]

32. (now archaic, literary) With preceding partitive word assumed, or as a predicate after to be: some, an amount of, one of. [from the 9th c.]

33. Linking to a genitive noun or possessive pronoun, with partitive effect (though now often merged with possessive senses, below). [from the 13th c.]

34. Expressing possession.

35. Belonging to, existing in, or taking place in a given location, place or time. Compare "origin" senses, above. [from the 9th c.]

36. Belonging to (a place) through having title, ownership or control over it. [from the 9th c.]

37. Belonging to (someone or something) as something they possess or have as a characteristic; the "possessive genitive". (With abstract nouns, this intersects with the subjective genitive, above under "agency" senses.) [from the 13th c.]

38. Forming the "objective genitive".

39. Following an agent noun, verbal noun or noun of action. [from the 12th c.]

40. Expressing qualities or characteristics.

41. (now archaic or literary) Linking an adjective with a noun or noun phrase to form a quasi-adverbial qualifier; in respect of, as regards. [from the 13th c.]

42. Indicating a quality or characteristic; "characterized by". [from the 13th c.]

43. Indicating quantity, age, price etc. [from the 13th c.]

44. Expressing a point in time.

45. (chiefly regional) During the course of (a set period of time, day of the week etc.), now specifically with implied repetition or regularity. [from the 9th c.]

46. (Britain dialectal) For (a given length of time), chiefly in negative constructions. [from the 13th c.]

- I've not tekken her out of a goodly long while.

47. Used after a noun to indicate duration of a state, activity etc. [from the 18th c.]


1. (usually in modal perfect constructions) Representing have or 've, chiefly in depictions of colloquial speech.