1. Out of the way, subsidiary.
1. so as to pass a given point
Similar word(s): past
2. in reserve; not for immediate use
- put something by for her old age
Sentences with by as an adverb:
- I watched as it passed by.
- There was a shepherd close by.
- The shop is hard by the High Street.
- I'll stop by on my way home from work.
- We're right near the lifeguard station. Come by before you leave.
- The women spent much time after harvest putting jams by for winter and spring.
1. (card games) A pass
1. Near or next to.
- The mailbox is by the bus stop.
2. At some time before (the given time), or before the end of a given time interval.
- Be back by ten o'clock! We will send it by the first week of July.
3. Indicates the actor in a clause with its verb in the passive voice: Through the action or presence of.
- The matter was decided by the chairman. The boat was swamped by the water. He was protected by his body armour.
4. Indicates the creator of a work: Existing through the authorship etc. of.
- There are many well-known plays by William Shakespeare
5. Indicates the cause of a condition or event: Through the action of, caused by, responsibility for; by dint of.
6. Indicates a means: Involving/using the means of.
- I avoided the guards by moving only when they weren't looking.
7. Indicates a source of light: Medium emanating from hot sources.
8. Indicates an authority, rule, or permission followed.
- I sorted the items by category. By the power vested in me, I now pronounce you man and wife.
9. Indicates the amount of some progression: With a change of.
- Our stock is up by ten percent.
10. In the formulae X by X and by Xs, indicates a steady progression, one X after another.
- We went through the book page by page. We crawled forward by inches.
11. Indicates a referenced source: According to.
- He cheated by his own admission.
12. Indicates an oath: With the authority of.
- By Jove! I think she's got it! By all that is holy, I'll put an end to this.
13. Used to separate dimensions when describing the size of something.
- It is easy to invert a 2-by-2 matrix. The room was about 4 foot by 6 foot. The bricks used to build the wall measured 10 by 20 by 30 cm.